Piracy and Slave Trading in Action in Classical and Hellenistic Greece

  • David Martin Lewis University of Edinburgh
Palavras-chave: Pirataria, Escravidão, Comércio de Escravos, Resgate, Trabalho, Economia Grega Antiga

Resumo

Most slaves in the Greek world were imported non-Greeks and their offspring. Yet little is known of the entry into slavery of individuals from the non-Greek periphery. Far more promising for studying entry into slavery is a less numerically significant process, piracy, where the capture and sale of individuals – mainly Greeks - is extensively documented. Piracy was both a form of labour in itself, and a means of acquiring labour. The aim of this article is to explore the pragmatic aspects of capture and sale, as well as the extent to which the practice of ransoming prisoners kept captives away from entering the slave supply, by studying the pirate crew’s work, the technology at its disposal, and the fate of its victims.

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Referências

Ager, S. Thera and the Pirates: An Ancient Case of the Stockholm Syndrome? Ancient History Bulletin, vol. 12, 1998, p. 83-95.
Arnaud, P. Les Routes de la Navigation Antique: Itinéraires en Méditerranée. Paris: Errance, 2005.
Avidov, A. Were the Cilicians a Nation of Pirates? Mediterranean Historical Review, vol. 12, 1997, p. 5-55.
Avram, A. Some Thoughts about the Black Sea and the Slave Trade before the Roman Domination (6th-1st centuries BC). In: Gabrielsen, V.; Lund, J. (eds.) The Black Sea in Antiquity: Regional and Interregional Economic Exchanges. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press, 2007, p. 239-251.
Baika, K. The Fortification of Shipsheds and Naval Arsenals. In: Blackman, D.; Rankov, B. Shipsheds of the Ancient Mediterranean. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013, p. 185-209.
Beresford, J. The Ancient Sailing Season. Leiden: Brill, 2013.
Bielman, A. Rétour à la Liberté: Libération et Sauvetage des Prisonniers en Grèce Ancienne. Athens: École Française d’Athènes, 1994.
Braccesi, L. (ed.) La Pirateria nell’Adriatico Antico. Rome: L'Erma di Bretschneider, 2004.
Bresson, A. La Cité Marchande. Bordeaux: Ausonius Éditions, 2000.
______. The Making of the Ancient Greek Economy: Institutions, Markets, and Growth in the City-States. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2016.
Brulé, P. La Piraterie Crétoise Hellénistique. Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1978.
Casson, L. Hemiolia and Triemiolia. Journal of Hellenic Studies, vol. 78, 1958, p. 14-18.
______. The Ancient Mariners. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991.
______. Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World. Revised Edition. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995a.
______. Merchant Galleys. In: Gardiner, R. (ed.) The Age of the Galley. London: Conway Maritime, 1995b, p. 117-126.
______. A Trireme for Hire (Is. 11.48). Classical Quarterly, vol. 45, n. 1, 1995c, p. 241-245.
Crisculo, L. “Ptolemies and Piracy. In: Buraselis, K.; Stefanou, M.; Thompson, D. J. (eds.) The Ptolemies, the Sea and the Nile: Studies in Waterborne Power. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013, p. 160-171.
Cvikel, D.; Kahanov, Y.; Rosen, B.; Saaroni, H.; Galili, E. The Voyage of Leucippe and Clitophon: A New Interpretation. Mariner’s Mirror, vol. 100, n. 4, 2014, p. 388-404.
Davies, J.K. Demetrio di Faro, la Pirateria e le Economie Ellenistiche. In: Braccesi, L. (ed.) La Pirateria nell’Adriatico Antico. Rome: L'Erma di Bretschneider, 2004, p. 119-127.
de Souza, P. Piracy in the Graeco-Roman World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Ferone, C. Lesteia: Forme di Predazione nell’Egeo in Età Classica. Napoli: Procaccini, 1997.
Finley, M. I. The Black Sea and Danubian Regions and the Slave Trade in Antiquity. Klio, vol. 40, 1962, p. 51-59.
Fischer, J. Der Schwarzmeerraum und der antike Sklavenhandel. Bemerkungen zu einigen ausgewählten Quellen. In: Frass, M.; Graßl, H.; Nightingale, G. (eds.) Akten des 15. Österreichischen Althistorikertages Salzburg, 20.-22. November 2014. Salzburg: Paracelsus, 2016, p. 53–71.
Funke, P. Die Aitoler in der Ägäis. Untersuchungen zur sogenannten “Seepolitik” der Aitoler im 3. Jh. v. Chr. In: Winter, E. (ed.) Vom Euphrat bis zum Bosporus. Kleinasien in der Antike. Festschrift für Elmar Schwertheim zum 65. Geburtstag. Bonn: Habelt, 2008, p. 253-267.
Gabbert, J. Piracy in the Early Hellenistic Period: A Career Open to Talents. Greece & Rome, vol. 33, n. 2, 1986, p. 156-163.
Gabrielsen, V. The Naval Aristocracy of Hellenistic Rhodes. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press, 1997.
______. Economic Activity, Maritime Trade and Piracy in the Hellenistic Aegean. Revue des Etudes Anciennes, vol. 103, 2001, p. 219-240.
______. Piracy and the Slave Trade. In: Erskine, A. (ed.) A Companion to the Hellenistic World. Oxford: Blackwell, 2003, p. 389-404.
______. Warfare, Statehood, and Piracy in the Greek World. In: Jaspert, N.; Kolditz, S. (eds.) Seeraub im Mittelmeerraum. Piraterie, Korsarentum und maritime Gewalt von der Antike bis zur Neuzeit. Paderborn: Verlag Ferdinan Schöningh, 2013a, p. 133-153.
______. Rhodes and the Ptolemaic Kingdom: The Commercial Infrastructure. In: Buraselis, K.; Stefanou, M.; Thompson, D. J. (eds.) The Ptolemies, the Sea and the Nile: Studies in Waterborne Power. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013b, p. 66-81.
Garlan, Y. Signification Historique de la Piraterie Grecque. Dialogues d’Histoire Ancienne, vol. 4, 1978, p. 1-16.
______. War, Piracy and Slavery in the Greek World. In: Finley, M. I. (ed.) Classical Slavery. London: Psychology Press, 1987, p. 7-21.
Gavriljuk, N. The Graeco-Scythian Slave Trade in the 6th and 5th Centuries BC. In: Bilde, P. G.; Hojte, J. M.; Stolbe, V. F. (eds.) The Cauldron of Ariantas: Studies Presented to A. N. Sceglov on the Occasion of his 75th Birthday. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press, 2003, p. 75-85.
Gianfrotta, P. Commercio e Pirateria: Prime Testimonianze Archeologiche Sottomarine. Mélanges de l’Ecole Française de Rome: Antiquité, vol. 93, 1981, p. 227-242.
Giuffrida Ientile, M. La Pirateria Tirrenica: Momenti e Fortuna. Rome: G. Bretschneider, 1983.
Grieb, V.; Todt, S. (eds) Piraterie von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2012.
Hacke, W. A Collection of Original Voyages. London: James Knapton, 1699.
Hamon, P. Tout l’Or et l’Argent de Téos: Au Sujet d’une Nouvelle Édition des Décrets sur les Pirates et l’Emprunt Public pour la Libération des Otages. Chiron, vol. 48, 2018, p. 333-374.
Höckmann, O. The Liburnian: Some Observations and Insights. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, vol. 26, 1997, p. 192-216.
Jacopi, Giulio. Nuove Epigrafi dale Sporadi Meridionali. In: Maiuri, Amedeo (org.) Monumenti di Scultura del Museo Archeologico di Rodi. Bergamo: Istituto Storico-Archeologico, 1932, p. 165-256.
Jaspert, N.; Kolditz, S. (eds.) Seeraub im Mittelmeerraum. Piraterie, Korsarentum und maritime Gewalt von der Antike bis zur Neuzeit. Paderborn: Verlag Ferdinan Schöningh, 2013.
Johnston, A., Quercia, A., Tsaravopoulos, A., Bevan, A.; Conolly, J. Pots, Piracy and Aegila: Hellenistic Ceramics from an Intensive Survey of Antikythera, Greece. Annual of the British School at Athens, vol. 107, 2012, p. 247-272.
Katzev, M. L.; Womer Katzev , S. Kyrenia II: Research on an Ancient Shipwreck comes Full Circle in a Full-Scale Replication. Institute of Nautical Archaeology Newsletter, vol. 13, n. 3, 1986, p. 1-11.
Konstam, A. The Pirate Ship 1660-1730. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2003.
Kvist, K. Cretan Grants of Asylia: Violence and Protection as Interstate Relations. Classica et Mediaevalia, vol. 54, 2003, p. 185-222.
Lewis, D. M. Near Eastern Slaves in Classical Attica and the Slave Trade with Persian Territories. Classical Quarterly, vol. 61, n. 1, 2011, p. 91-113.
______. The Market for Slaves in the Fifth- and Fourth-Century Aegean: Achaemenid Anatolia as a Case Study. In Harris, E. M.; Lewis, D. M.; Woolmer, M. (eds.) The Ancient Greek Economy: Markets, Households and City-States. Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015, p. 316-336.
______. Notes on Slave Names, Ethnicity, and Identity in Classical and Hellenistic Greece. Studia Źródłoznawcze: U Schyłku Starożytności, vol. 16, 2018a, p. 169-199.
______. Greek Slave Systems in their Eastern Mediterranean Context, c. 800-146 BC. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018b.
Luraghi, N. Traders, Pirates, Warriors: The Proto-History of Greek Mercenary Soldiers in the Eastern Mediterranean. Phoenix, vol. 60, 2006, p. 21-47.
Lytle, E. Fishing with Fire: Technology, Economy, and Two Inscriptions. Historia, vol. 67, n. 1, 2018, p. 61-102.
Ma, J. Fighting Poleis of the Hellenistic World. In: van Wees, H. (ed.) War and Violence in Ancient Greece. London: Classical Press of Wales, 2000, p. 337-376.
Medas, S. Λέμβοι e Liburnae. In: Braccesi, L. (ed.) La Pirateria nell’Adriatico Antico. Rome: L'Erma di Bretschneider, 2004, p. 129-138.
Mihovilić, K. La Situla di Nesazio con Naumachia. In: Braccesi, L. (ed.) La Pirateria nell’Adriatico Antico. Rome: L'Erma di Bretschneider, 2004, p. 93-107.
Milton, G. White Gold. London: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2004.
Morrison, J. S. Hemiolia, Trihemiolia. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, vol. 9, 1980, p. 121-126.
Morrison, J. S.; Williams, R. T. Greek Oared Ships. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968.
Morrison, J. S.; Coates, J. Greek and Roman Oared Warships. Oxford: Oxbow Books, 1996.
Ormerod, H. A. Piracy in the Ancient World. Liverpool: Johns Hopkins University Press Books, 1924.
Panciera, S. Liburna: Rassegna delle Fonti, Caratteristiche della Nave, Accezioni del Termine. Epigraphica, vol. 18, 1956, p. 130-156.
Perrier, A. Brigands et Pirates. In: Picard, O., Brunet, M., Couvenhes, J.C., Perrier, A., Prêteux, F.; Rebuffat, F. (eds.) Économies et Sociétés en Grèce Ancienne (478-88 av. J.-C.). Paris: A. Coulin, 2008, p. 212-234.
Pryor, J. H. Geographical Conditions of Galley Navigation in the Mediterranean. In: Gardiner, R. (ed.) The Age of the Galley. London: Conway Maritime, 1995, p. 206-216.
Rauh, N. Who Were the Cilician Pirates? In: Swiny, S. et al. (eds.) Res Maritimae: Cyprus and the Eastern Mediterranean from Prehistory to Late Antiquity Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1998, p. 263-283.
Rediker, M. Villains of All Nations: Atlantic Pirates in the Golden Age. Boston: Beacon, 2004.
Rediker, M. The Slave Ship: A Human History. London: Penguin Books, 2007.
Rostovtzeff, M. The Social and Economic History of the Hellenistic World. Volume I. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1941.
Roy, J. Cittadini Ridotti in Schiavitù: Il Consolidarsi della Schiavitù nella Grecia Classica. In: Di Nardo, A.; Lucchetta, G. A. (eds.) Nuove e Antiche Schiavitu. Napoli: Editoriale Scientifica, 2012, p. 53-63.
Şahin, S. Piratenüberfall auf Teos: Volksbeschluss über die Finanzierung der Erpressungsgelder. Epigraphica Anatolica, vol. 23, 1994, p. 1-36.
Scholten, J. The Politics of Plunder: Aitolians and their Koinon in the Early Hellenistic Era, 279-217 B.C. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.
Skarlatidou, E. K. Κατάλογος μυστών και εποπτών από τη Σαμοθράκη. Horos, vol. 8–9, 1993, p. 153–172.
Sosin, J. Ransom at Athens ([Dem.] 53.11). Historia, vol. 66, 2017, p. 130-146.
Tsetskhladze, G. R. Black Sea Piracy. Talanta, vol. 32-33, 2000-2001, p. 308-315.
Velkov, V. Zur Frage der Sklaverei auf der Balkanhalbinsel während der Antike. Etudes Balkaniques, vol. 1, 1964, p. 125–138.
Vitkus, D. J. Piracy, Slavery, and Redemption: Barbary Captivity Narratives from Early Modern England. New York & Chichester: Columbia University Press, 2001.
Vlassopoulos, K. Two Images of Ancient Slavery: The “Living Tool” and the “Koinônia”. In: Hermann-Otto, E. (ed.) Sklaverei und Zwangsarbeit zwischen Akzeptanz und Widerstand. Hildesheim, Zürich & New York: Olms Georg AG, 2011, p. 467-477.
van Wees, H. Status Warriors: War, Violence and Society in Homer and History. Amsterdam: J. C. Gieben, 1992.
______. Ships and Silver, Taxes and Tribute: A Fiscal History of Archaic Athens. London: I. B. Tauris, 2013.
Wachsmann, S. Seagoing Ships & Seamanship in the Bronze Age Levant. London: Texas A&M University Press, 1998.
Wiemer, H.-U. Krieg, Handel und Piraterie: Untersuchungen zur Geschichte des hellenistischen Rhodos. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2002.
Zambon, E. I Provvidimenti ontro i Pirati in età Ellenistica. In: Braccesi, L. (ed.) La Pirateria nell’Adriatico Antico. Rome: L'Erma di Bretschneider, 2004, p. 147-172.
Publicado
2019-08-09
Como Citar
Lewis, D. (2019). Piracy and Slave Trading in Action in Classical and Hellenistic Greece. Mare Nostrum (São Paulo), 10(2), 79-108. Recuperado de https://www.periodicos.usp.br/marenostrum/article/view/155855
Seção
Dossiê